Women In Albania

Outside Tirana, along with the centres established by CCWG, different NGOs have established counselling centres and help-traces in Shkodra (Refleksione, Hapat e Lehtё, Grua për Grua), in Elbasan and Lezha. Amnesty International notes that in circumstances the place a firearm was used to kill, women are sentenced under Article 278/2 of the CC, which criminalises the possession somewhat than use of a firearm.

Although beneath Article fifty five CPC, this sentence is usually “unified”, and should make little difference to the overall sentence, the group considers that girls ought to be not be prosecuted for the illegal possession of a weapon held illegally by another individual. Under Article fifty five of the CC, when a court convicts a defendant on two or more costs, the court docket first determines the sentence for every offence individually, after which combines these in a single sentence “unified” which may not exceed the whole sum of the individual sentences. In most instances reviewed, if the defendant was charged on two counts, the second charge associated to the unlawful possession of a weapon (Article 278/2 of the CC) and/or ammunition (Article 278/three of the CC). In 5 legal cases where men were prosecuted for the homicide or manslaughter of their wives, between March 2003 and November 2005 at Tirana, Shkodra and Vlora District Courts, all but one involved small arms – Kalashnikovs or pistols. The Kanun additionally provided that, under sure conditions, a man might kill his wife with impunity for adultery and for betrayal of hospitality. For these acts of “infidelity” the husband was entitled to kill his wife without incurring a blood feud, since her mother and father had obtained the value of her blood, and given him a cartridge with which to shoot her as a part of her dowry, and assured her conduct on the day of her wedding ceremony.50 Women had been in any other case explicitly excluded from blood feuds.

Women In Albania

120 Kujtim Luli acknowledged that prosecutors tended to focus mainly on “critical crimes involving arms, cases which are the acute end of violence, extremely dangerous”. 117 It has been estimated that 5 per cent of possible complaints reach the courts, Committee for Women and the Family and UNICEF, Mapping of Existing Information on Domestic Violence in Albania, October 2000, p.21; Refleksione, Comparative Study, p. 5. For the criminal offences provided by articles 89, 102 first paragraph, 105, 106, 130, 239, 240, 241, 243, 264, 275 and 318 of the Criminal Code, felony proceedings may begin only on the basis of a grievance brought by the injured individual, who might withdraw the same at any stage of the proceedings. 95 Erita Avdyli, a UNICEF worker, disappeared in April 2000; her body was found in May 2000. Her husband Dritan Avdyli was arrested on 14 May, charged, tried and acquitted of her homicide; in accordance with recent press reports, the investigation has been re-started. 87 “We haven’t had any instances of torture this yr”, AI interview with Tirana police.

In the countryside, the place two-thirds of Albania’s 3.2 million people live, fathers nonetheless might ″promote″ girls at delivery to future husbands. It is an historic apply beneath the unwritten Canon of Lek that ruled tribal conduct in northern Albania properly into this century. The Board is made up of seven members; four of whom are inner members, govt directors of the organizations which might be members of the community, and 3 of them are distinguished figures of the social activism life within the country.

Discrimination And Violence In Opposition To Women

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The internal repression through the communist era which noticed the demise, imprisonment and internal exile of tons of of hundreds of Albanians left a painful and unresolved legacy. The following years of political instability, which peaked within the crisis of 1997, have resulted in an absence of the efficient rule of law in many components of Albania, which successive governments have sought to deal with. Shpresa has seen women develop and develop taking on employment and changing into community leaders in addition to confident and skilled parents. We are additionally delighted that mainstream providers need to study from us and develop culturally delicate companies for ladies from the Albanian speaking group. The Centre was established in November 1997, as a project of the Lawyer Women’s Association and has been operating often ever since.

Women’s Health And Nicely

198 Also instrumental in establishing the Tirana Shelter, and a project for abused kids. 194 The absence of reference to children in foster care is of concern, see Article 224, Family Code. 173 “In their married life that they had quarrels which intensified after their daughter left the household and went to Italy, and have become engaged to GV from Elbasan. After their daughter left, the couple kept accusing each other for having caused their daughter, who was exploited as a prostitute in Italy, to depart “, verdict, as above. 159 Similar defences based mostly on a “lack of control”, a “match of fury”, provocation or ardour happen in jurisdictions throughout the world, and “overwhelmingly benefit males committing violence in opposition to females”, Welchman and Hossain, op. cit, pp. 10-thirteen. 147 Article 275 of the CC, Wrongful intentional use of phone albanian girls dating calls made to breach a 3rd celebration’s peace and quiet enjoyment constitutes criminal contravention and is punishable by a fantastic or up to one yr of imprisonment. 133 AI interview, OSCE, Tirana; for issues in regards to the Albanian judicial system, including corruption “encompassing all actors in the judicial system”, and the dearth of public confidence within the judiciary, see, OSCE Presence in Albania, Fair Trial Development Project, Interim Report, September 2004. 122 AI interview, Besa Saraçi, QAG; Article 133 of the Family Code provides that “The courtroom may assign fault, within the dissolution of the marriage, only when requested to by one or both spouses”.

forty six Lynn Welchman and Sara Hossain, “Honour’, rights and wrongs”, in Welchman and Hossain, p.5. Arben Lloja and Dr Bledar Xhemali, “Krimi brenda Familjes, Vitin “, (Crime inside the Family, ), Revista e Mjekësisë Ligjore Shqiptare, Nr 2, Vitin 2005, (The Review of Albanian Legal Medicine, No. 2, 2005), pp. 9-sixteen. The majority of injuries suffered by women had been to the face and head , of which grazes and scratches and bruising , have been most frequently observed. 1 The draft law “On Measures in opposition to Violence in Family Relations” is described in additional element in section seven, beneath. Such evidence should be taken into consideration by the court docket, both so it may be decided whether an concern of self-defence arises, or so that it may be taken into consideration in mitigation of sentence.

On 6 December 2001, via Decision No.eight of Tirana District Court, it was registered as an independent legal entity, with standing “center”. AWEN has applied a number of tasks aimed at empowering women and girls in Albania. To broaden employment and entrepreneurial opportunities for girls, state funds have been used to benefit 40 enterprises led by women. Women and girls additionally shaped 56 per cent of unemployed people who benefited from an employment promotion programme.

Domestic Violence In Opposition To Albanian Immigrant Women In Greece: Facing Patriarchy

seventy eight Article 178 of the Albanian Constitution states that “all are equal earlier than the law”, and that “no-one shall be unjustly discriminated for purpose such as intercourse, race, religion, ethnicity”. 62 The marriages of 19 out of the 55 women interviewed by Adriana Baban for UNICEF had been arranged by their father or by their brother, Domestic Violence towards Women in Albania, UNICEF, 2003, p. 22. 57 CEDAW, General Recommendation 19, Violence in opposition to women, , Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N. Doc. If the spouse does not “conduct herself properly towards her husband” the man may “reduce a ribbon from her belt or a lock of her hair” and leave her. The man was then expected to cut his wife’s hair, strip her nude, expel her from the home within the presence of family members after which drive her with a whip via the complete village, Kanun section XXXI.

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Association between excessive risk human papillomavirus infection and co-infection with Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis in women with cervical premalignant and malignant lesions. Three-yr threat of excessive-grade CIN for women aged 30 years or older who bear baseline Pap cytology and HPV co-screening. 218 AI interview with Monika Asllani, Executive Director, Refleksione. For positive reports on the employment of Roma women, see, “Objektivat kryesore të strategjisë janë arsimimi, formimi profesional, punësimi dhe kujdesi shëndetësor për Romët, strategji për kujdesin e strehimin,” Shekulli, 1 February 2006. 201 Figures represent the number of women and girls, quite than calls received, as many women obtained repeat phone counselling. 200 Thirty per cent of calls related to abuse by different members of the family – father, step-fathers, brothers or mothers, while the remaining 10 per cent associated to abuse by strangers, co-workers or associates.